Tips and Tricks

Resources to help you get the best results

Application

Always stir paint thoroughly, mixing upwards to blend the paint. Stir occasionally during use to maintain uniform colour and sheen.

Techniques for brushing on paint
The use of an angular tip brush allows more accurate placement of the paint, and is especially suitable when painting trim and window frames.

To paint a consistent, straight line along the edge of trim or along the edge of a window pane, give the brush a gentle wiggle as you apply the tips of the bristles to the surface. This gently flares out the bristles. Now move the brush along the surface, remembering to hold it at it’s metal ferrule for greater control.
General
Plan on 1 – 2 days for preparatory work including repairs and washing of the surface. Allow at least one day for the surface to dry.

Repainting Previously Painted Surfaces
After sanding the desired surface, use PARA PRIMETECH Super-Stick #777 as a spot primer before top coating. If you suspect the old glossy surface to be an alkyd paint and you would like to apply a new latex topcoat, apply a coat of PARA PRIMETECH Aqua-Primex latex primer #750 after washing and before applying a top coat of PARA ULTRA Latex House Paint.


Preparing Unpainted Surfaces

Bare Wood
PARA ULTRA Exterior Latex Paints are 100% acrylic, allowing harmonious expansion and contraction of the paint film with the surface substrate during temperature extremes. PARA ULTRA pure acrylic Latex House Paints also allow humidity from inside the house to escape through the wood and through the paint film without causing the paint to peel.

Pre-finished Aluminum
If pre-finished aluminum is glossy, lightly sand then apply a coat of PARA PRIMETECH Acrylic Latex Primer before applying the topcoat, to ensure lasting adhesion.

Vinyl Siding
Never use a color darker than the vinyl, to prevent warping from the sun’s heat.

Bare Masonry (Stucco, brick, concrete block, cement)
New masonry is very alkaline, and is best not painted for a year, after which PARA pure acrylic PRIMETECH Aqua-Primex is recommended, followed by PARA ULTRA pure acrylic Exterior House Paint. If you must paint sooner, wait at least 30 days.

To ensure lasting paint adhesion, etch the surface with a 10% muriatic acid solution and rinse. See Painting Exterior Floors/Porches

Techniques for brushing on paint
The use of an angular tip brush allows more accurate placement of the paint, and is especially suitable when painting trim and window frames..

To paint a consistent, straight line along the edge of trim or along the edge of a window pane, give the brush a gentle wiggle as you apply the tips of the bristles to the surface. This gently flares out the bristles. Now move the brush along the surface, remembering to hold it at it’s metal ferrule for greater control.

Techniques for rolling on paint
Use the brush first to cut-in a 4″ wide strip around the edges where the roller cannot reach. Keep the edge of the brushed area thin where the roller will be overlapping. Cut-in and immediately roll only one wall or area at a time to achieve a uniform appearance once the paint is dry.

Painting Exterior Floors/Porches
Consult Preparing the Surface to determine how to properly prepare concrete and wood for painting, to prevent future failure of the paint on the floor’s surface. Also have ready a bottle of anti-skid media (e.g. sand, walnut shells, cork, etc.) to sprinkle onto the top coat of paint, to prevent slipping on the surface when the floor/porch is wet.

Paneled Doors, Garage Doors, and Window Frames
Paint both sides of wooden garage doors to avoid warping due to absorption through the back of the door.

Painted panel doors
To allow the paint to flow and level out when painting paneled doors, it may be beneficial to thin the paint slightly, up to 10% (use water for acrylic latex paints, and mineral spirits for alkyd paints). This will also prevent one area from drying before you can blend back into it from neighbouring areas.

Cleaning Painting Tools
Do not dispose of mineral spirits down your drain; it harms the environment. Pour used solvent into a metal can, and dispose of it at a proper hazardous waste facility. A brush and roller spinner quickly and thoroughly cleans and dries brushes and rollers

General
Most PARA Paints will cover in one coat, when applied according to these methods, using professional quality tools. Some paints and colours, however, will require two coats, especially if the old paint is very dry or the surface is very porous. When applying darker colours, a prime coat is recommended first to promote colour uniformity.

Interior Problems and Solutions

Increase in gloss or sheen of paint film when subjected to rubbing, scrubbing or having an object brush up against it

Possible Cause:

– Use of flat paint in highly trafficked areas, where a higher sheen level would be desirable
– Frequent washing and spot cleaning
– Objects (furniture, for example) rubbing against the walls
– Use of lower grades of paint with poor stain and scrub resistance (See poor stain resistance and poor scrub resistance

Solution:

Paint heavy wear areas that require regular cleaning (e.g., doors, window sills and trim) with PARA ULTRA top quality Latex Paint, because this type of paint offers both durability and easier cleaning capability. In high traffic areas, choose a paint with a higher sheen level, such as PARA ULTRA Semi-Gloss (#8300) rather than a flat sheen level. Clean painted surfaces with a soft cloth or sponge and nonabrasive cleansers; rinse with clean water.

Undesirable sticking together of two painted surfaces when pressed together (e.g. a door sticking to the jamb)

Possible Cause:

– Not allowing sufficient dry time for the coating before closing doors or windows
– Use of low quality semi-gloss or gloss paints.

Solution:

Use PARA ULTRA top quality Semi-Gloss (#8300) 100% Acrylic Latex Paint. Low quality latex paints can have poor block resistance, especially in warm, damp conditions. Follow paint label instructions regarding dry times. PARA ULTRA 100% Acrylic Latex Paints have excellent early block resistance rather than vinyl latex paints, or alkyd or oil based paints, however, alkyds develop superior block resistance over time. Application of talcum powder can relieve persistent blocking.

Bubbles resulting from localized loss of adhesion and lifting of the paint film from the underlying surface.

Possible Cause:

– Applying oil based or alkyd paint over a damp or wet surface
– Moisture seeping into the home through the exterior walls (less likely with latex paint)
– Exposure of latex paint film to high humidity or moisture shortly after paint has dried, especially if there was inadequate surface preparation

Solution:

If blisters do not go all the way down to the substrate: Remove blisters by scraping and sanding, and repaint with PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Latex Interior Paint.
f blisters go down to the substrate: Remove the source of moisture, if possible. Repair loose caulking; consider installing vents or exhaust fans. Remove blisters as above, remembering to prime with a PARA PRIMETECH top quality Primer before applying the top coat.

Loss of caulks initial adhesion and flexibility, causing it to crack and/or pull away from the surfaces to which it is applied.

Possible Cause:

– Use of lower quality caulk
– Use of wrong type of caulk for particular application (e.g., using latex or vinyl caulk in areas where there is prolonged contact with water or considerable movement of the caulked surfaces)

Solution:

Use a top quality water based acrylic or paintable caulk if prolonged contact with water is not anticipated. These caulks are flexible enough to adapt to minor fluctuations in the substrate, stretching in gaps that widen slightly over time. They also adhere to a wide range of interior building materials, including wood, ceramic tile, concrete, glass, plaster, bare aluminum, brick and plastic even in areas where moisture is present.

Note: Silicone caulk should not be painted.

The splitting of a dry paint film through at least one coat as a result of aging, which ultimately will lead to complete failure of the paint. In its early stages, the problem appears as hairline cracks; in its later stages, flaking occurs

Possible Cause:

– Use of a lower quality paint that has inadequate adhesion and flexibility
– Overthinning or overspreading the paint
– Inadequate surface preparation, or applying the paint to bare wood without first applying a primer
– Excessive hardening and embrittlement of alkyd paint as the paint job ages

Solution:

Remove loose and flaking paint with scraper or wire brush, sanding the surface and feathering the edges. If the flaking occurs in multiple layers of paint, use of a filler may be necessary. Prime bare wood areas before repainting. Use of an appropriate PARA PRIMETECH top quality primer and PARA ULTRA 100% Acrylic top coat should prevent a recurrence of the problem.

Formation of bubbles (foaming) and resulting small, round concave depressions (cratering) when bubbles break in a paint film, during paint application and drying.

Possible Cause:

– Shaking a partially filled can of paint
– Use of low quality paint or very old latex paint
– Applying (especially rolling) paint too rapidly
– Use of a roller cover with wrong nap length
– Excessive rolling or brushing of the paint
– Applying a gloss or semi-gloss paint over a porous surface

Solution:

All paints will foam to some degree during application; However, PARA ULTRA Top quality paints are formulated so the bubbles break while the paint is still wet, allowing for good flow and appearance. Avoid excessive rolling or brushing of the paint or using paint that is more than a year old. Apply gloss and semi-gloss paints with a short nap roller, and apply an appropriate PARA PRIMETECH top quality sealer or primer before using such paint over a porous surface. Problem areas should be sanded before repainting.

Appearance of a denser colour or increased gloss where wet and dry layers overlap during paint application.

Possible Cause:

– Failure to maintain a “wet edge” when painting
– Use of a low solids “economy” paint

Solution:

Maintain a wet edge when painting by applying paint toward the unpainted area and then brush into the just painted surface. This technique (brushing or rolling from “wet to dry,” rather than vice versa) will produce a smooth, uniform appearance. It is also wise to work in manageable size areas; plan for interruptions at a natural break, such as a window, door or corner. Using PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Latex Paint makes it easier to avoid lapping problems because higher solids (pigments and binder) content makes lapped areas less noticeable. If substrate is very porous, it may need a primer/sealer to prevent paint from drying too quickly and reducing wet edge time. Alkyd paints generally have superior wet edge properties.

Black, grey or brown spots or areas on the surface of paint or caulk.

Possible Cause:

– Forms most often on areas that tend to be damp, or receive little or no direct sunlight (e.g., bathrooms, kitchens and laundry rooms)
– Use of an alkyd or oil-based paint, or lower quality latex paint
– Failure to prime a bare wood surface before applying the paint
– Painting over a substrate or coating on which mildew has not been removed

Solution:

Test for mildew by applying a few drops of household bleach to the area; if it is bleached away, the discolourant is probably mildew. Remove all mildew from the surface by scrubbing with a diluted household bleach solution (one part bleach, three parts water), while wearing rubber gloves and eye protection. Rinse thoroughly. To protect against mildew, use PARA ULTRA top quality Latex Paint, and clean when necessary with bleach/detergent solution. Consider installing an exhaust fan in high moisture areas.

Deep, irregular cracks resembling dried mud in dry paint film.

Possible Cause:

– Paint is applied too thickly, usually over a porous surface
– Paint is applied too thickly, to improve inherent poor hiding (coverage) of a lower quality paint
– Paint is allowed to build up in corners upon application

Solution:

Remove coating by scraping and sanding. Prime with the appropriate PARA PRIMETECH top quality primer and repaint, using PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Latex Paint. Mud cracked areas can also be repaired by sanding the surface smooth before repainting with PARA ULTRA 100% Acrylic Latex Paint. This type of paint is likely to prevent recurrence of mud cracking, because it is relatively more flexible than alkyd paint, oil based paint and ordinary latex paint. PARA ULTRA top quality paints have a higher solids content, which reduces the tendency to mud crack. They also have very good application and hiding properties, which minimize the tendency to apply too thick a coat of paint.

An effect of non uniform colour that can appear when a wall is painted with a roller, but is brushed at the corners. The brushed areas generally appear darker, resembling the “frame” of a “picture.” Also, sprayed areas may be darker than neighbouring sections that are brushed or rolled. Picture framing can also refer to sheen effects.

Possible Cause:

– Usually a hiding (coverage) effect. Brushing will generally result in lower spread rates than rolling, producing a thicker film and more hiding.
– Adding colorant to a non-tintable paint or using the wrong type or level of colorant.

Solution:

Make sure that spread rates with brushes and rollers are similar. Don’t cut in the entire room before roller coating. Work in smaller sections of the room to maintain a “wet edge.” With tinted paints, be sure the correct colorant base combinations are used. Factory colours, as well as in-store tints, should be thoroughly shaken at time of sale.

Failure of paint to dry to a smooth film, resulting in unsightly brush and roller marks after the paint dries.

Possible Cause:

– Use of lower quality paint
– Application of additional paint to “touch up” partially dried painted areas
– Re-brushing or re-rolling partially dried painted areas
– Use of the wrong type of roller cover or poor quality brush

Solution:

Use PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Latex Paints, which are formulated with ingredients that enhance paint flow. Brush and roller marks thus tend to “flow out” and form a smooth film. When using a roller be sure to use a cover with the recommended nap length for the type of paint being used. Use of a high quality brush is important; a poor brush can result in bad flow and levelling with any paint.

Failure of dried paint to obscure or “hide” the surface to which it is applied

Possible Cause:

– Use of a low quality paint
– Use of low quality tools/wrong roller cover
– Use of an improper combination of tinting base and tinting colour
– Poor flow and levelling (see poor flow/levelling)
– Use of a paint that is much lighter in colour than the substrate, or that primarily contains low hiding organic pigments
– Application of paint at a higher spread rate than recommended

Solution:

If the substrate is significantly darker or is patterned wallpaper, it should be primed before applying a top coat. use PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic paint for better hiding and flow. Use quality tools; use the recommended roller nap, if rolling. Follow manufacturer’s recommendation on spread rate; if using tinted paint, use the correct tinting base. Where a low hiding organic colour must be used, apply a primer first.

Tendency of paint film to take on the imprint of an object that is placed on it (e.g., a shelf, table, window sill or countertop with books, dishes and other object on them).

Possible Cause:

– Use of low quality semi-gloss or gloss paint
– Putting a painted surface back into use before paint has fully dried

Solution:

Use PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Semi-Gloss (#8300) or gloss latex paint. Low quality latex semi-gloss and gloss paints can have poor print resistance, especially in warm, damp conditions. Acrylic latex paints generally have better print resistance than vinyl latex paints. Fully cured alkyd paints also have excellent print resistance. Make sure the recommended “cure” time is allowed for the paint before it is put into service. Cool or humid conditions require more curing time.

Wearing away or removal of the paint film when scrubbed with a brush, sponge, or cloth.

Possible Cause:

– Choosing the wrong sheen for the area
– Use of a lower quality paint
– Use of an overly aggressive scrub medium (see burnishing)

Solution:

Areas that need frequent cleaning require PARA ULTRA 100% Acrylic Paint formulated to provide such performance. High traffic areas may require a semi-gloss or gloss paint rather than a flat paint to provide good scrub resistance. Allow adequate dry time, as scrub resistance will not fully develop until the paint is thoroughly cured. Typically, this will be one week. Try washing the painted surface with the least abrasive material and mildest detergent first.

Shiny spots or dull spots (also known as “flashing”) on a painted surface; uneven gloss.

Causes possibles:

– Uneven spread rate
– Failure to properly prime a porous surface, or surface with varying degrees of porosity
– Poor application resulting in lapping (see lapping)

Solution:

New substrates should be primed/sealed with a PARA PRIMETECH top quality primer-sealer before applying a PARA ULTRA top coat to ensure a uniformly porous surface. Without the use of a primer or sealer, a second coat of paint will more likely be needed. Make sure to apply paint from “wet to dry” to prevent lapping. Often, applying an additional coat will even out sheen irregularities.

Failure of the paint to resist absorption of dirt and stains.

Possible Cause:

– Use of lower quality paint that is porous in nature
– Application of paint to unprimed substrate

Solution:

PARA ULTRA top quality Latex Paints contain more binder, which help prevent stains from penetrating the painted surface, allowing for easy removal. Priming new surfaces with a PARA PRIMETECH top quality primer provides maximum film thickness of a premium top coat, providing very good stain removeablity.

Possible Cause:

– Use of incorrect roller cover
– Use of lower grades of paint
– Use of low quality roller
– Use of incorrect rolling technique

Solution:

Use the proper roller cover; avoid too long a nap for the paint and the substrate. Use quality rollers to ensure adequate film thickness and uniformity. PARA ULTRA top quality Paints roll on more evenly due to their higher solids content and levelling properties. Pre-dampen roller covers used with latex paint; shake out excess water. Don’t let paint build up at rollers end. Begin rolling at a corner near the ceiling and work down the wall in three foot square section. Spread the paint in a zigzag “M” or “W” pattern, beginning with an upward stroke to minimize splatter; then, without lifting the roller from the surface, fill in the zigzag pattern with even, parallel strokes.

Tendency of a roller to throw off small droplets of paint during application

Possible Cause:

– Use of exterior paint on an interior surface
– Use of lower grades of latex paints

Solution:

PARA ULTRA top quality paints are formulated to minimize spattering. Using high quality rollers which have proper resiliency further reduces spattering. Overloading the roller with paint will result in excess spatter, as will overworking the paint once it is applied to a substrate. Working in three feet square sections, applying the paint in a zigzag “M” or “W” pattern and then filling in the pattern will also lessen the likelihood of spattering. For ceilings, we recommend using PARA ULTRA Ceiling Paints, as they are designed specifically for maximum spatter resistance. For stucco ceilings, determine if the ceiling has been previously painted. If no, use PARA ULTRA Alkyd-based Ceiling Paint (#676).

Downward “drooping” movement of the paint film immediately after application, resulting in an uneven coating.

Possible Cause:

– Application of a heavy coat of paint
– Application in excessively humid and/or cool conditions
– Application of over thinned paint
– Airless spraying with the gun too close to the substrate being painted.

Solution:

If paint is still wet, immediately brush out or reroll to redistribute the excess evenly. If the paint has dried, sand and reapply a new coat of PARA ULTRA top quality Paint. Correct any unfavourable condition: Do not thin the paint, avoid cool or humid condition as well as sand glossy surfaces. Paint should be applied at its recommended spread rage; avoid “heaping on” the paint. Two coats of paint at the recommended spread are better than one heavy coat, which can also lead to sagging. Consider removing doors to paint them supported horizontally.

Concentration of water-soluble ingredients on the surface of latex paint, typically on a ceiling surface in rooms that have high humidity (e.g., shower, bathroom, kitchen); may be evident as tan or brown spots or areas, and can sometimes be glossy, soapy or sticky.

Possible Cause:

– All latex paint formulas will exhibit this tendency to some extent if applied in areas that become humid (bathrooms, for example), especially in ceiling areas

Solution:

Wash the affected area with soap and water, and rinse. Problem may occur once or twice again before leachable material is completely removed. When paint is applied in a bathroom, it is helpful to have it dry thoroughly before using the shower. Remove all staining before repainting.

A rough, crinkled paint surface, which occurs when uncured paint forms a “skin”.

Possible Cause:

– Paint applied too thickly (more likely when using alkyd or oil-based paints
– Painting during extremely hot weather or cool damp weather, which causes the paint film to dry faster on top than on the bottom
– Exposing uncured paint to high humidity levels
– Applying top coat of paint to insufficiently cured primer
– Painting over contaminated surface (e.g., dirt or wax)

Solution:

Scrape or sand substrate to remove wrinkled coating. If using a primer allow it to dry completely before applying top coat. Repaint (avoiding extreme temperatures & humidity), applying an even coat of PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Interior Paint.

Development of a yellow cast in aging paint; most noticeable in the dried films of white paints or clear varnishes

Possible Cause:

– Oxidation of alkyd or oil-based paint or varnish
– Heat from stoves, radiators and heating ducts
– Chaleur provenant de foyers, radiateurs ou conduits de chauffage
– Lack of light (e.g., behind pictures or appliances, inside closets, etc.))

Solution:

PARA ULTRA top quality 100% Acrylic Latex Paints do not tend to yellow, nor do PARA ULTRA varnishes. Alkyd paints, because of their curing mechanism, do tend to yellow, particularly in areas that are protected from sunlight.

Exterior Problems and Solutions

Patterned cracking in the surface of the paint film resembling the regular scales of an alligator.

Possible Cause:

– Application of an extremely hard, rigid coating, like an alkyd enamel, over a more flexible coating, like a latex primer
– Application of a top coat before the undercoat is dry
– Natural aging of alkyd paints as temperatures fluctuate. The constant expansion and contraction results in a loss of paint film elasticity

Solution:

Old paint should be completely removed by scraping and sanding the surface; a heat gun can be used to speed work on large surfaces, but be sure to take care to avoid igniting paint or substrate. The surface should be primed with a high quality latex or alkyd PARA PRIMETECH primer, then painted with a top quality PARA ULTRA Exterior Acrylic Latex Paint.

Bubbles resulting from localized loss of adhesion and lifting of the paint film in the underlying surface.

Possible Cause:

– Painting a warm surface in direct sunlight. Application of oil-based or alkyd paint over a damp or wet surface
– Moisture escaping through the exterior walls (less likely with latex paint than with alkyd paint)
– Exposure of latex paint film to dew, high humidity or rain shortly after paint has dried, especially if there was inadequate surface preparation

Solution:

If blisters go down to the substrate, try to remove the source of moisture. Repair loose caulking; consider installing an exhaust fan. Remove blisters. If blisters do not go all the way down to the substrate, remove them by scraping, then sanding; prime any bare wood and repaint with a PARA ULTRA top quality Exterior Paint.

Formation of fine powder on the surface of the paint film during weather, which can cause color fading. Although some degree of chalking is a normal, desirable way for a paint film to wear, excessive film erosion can result in heavy chalking.

Possible Cause:

– Use of a lower quality, highly pigmented paint
– Use of interior paint for an outdoor application

Solution:

Remove as much of the chalk residue as possible (see Chalking). Scrub any stained areas with a stiff brush, using a detergent solution, rinse thoroughly. In cases of severe staining, an acid wash may be necessary. Either way, if the affected area dries to a different color, consider painting it with a quality acrylic latex paint. Eroding aluminum siding should be thoroughly cleaned (power washing recommended) before painting with a top quality PARA ULTRA pure Acrylic Latex Paint.

The washing down of chalk from an excessively eroding paint onto another area below (a brick foundation, for example), ruining its appearance (see Chalking).

Possible Cause:

– Use of a lower quality, highly pigmented paint
– Use of interior paint for an outdoor application
– Erosion of factory-finished metal siding

Solution:

Remove as much of the chalk residue as possible (see Chalking). Scrub any stained areas with a stiff brush, using a detergent solution, rinse thoroughly. In cases of severe staining, an acid wash may be necessary. Either way, if the affected area dries to a different color, consider painting it with a quality acrylic latex paint. Eroding aluminum siding should be thoroughly cleaned (power washing recommended) before painting with a top quality PARA ULTRA pure Acrylic Latex Paint.

The splitting of a dry paint film through at least one coat, which will lead to complete failure of the paint. Early on, the problem appears as hairline cracks; later, flaking of paint chips occurs.

Possible Cause:

– Use of a lower quality paint that has inadequate adhesion and flexibility
– Over thinning the paint or spreading it too thin.
– Poor surface preparation, especially when the paint is applied to bare wood without priming.
– Painting under cool or windy conditions that make latex paint dry too fast.

Solution:

It may be possible to correct cracking that does not go down to the substrate by removing the loose or flaking paint with a scraper or wire brush, sanding to feather the edges, priming any bare spots and repainting. If the cracking goes down to the substrate, remove all of the paint by scraping, sanding and/or use of a heat gun; then prime and repaint with top quality PARA ULTRA pure Acrylic Latex Paint.

Accumulation of dirt, dust particles and/or other debris on the paint film; may resemble Mildew

Possible Cause:

– Use of a low quality paint, especially lower grades of satin or semi gloss finishes
– Soil splashing onto siding
– Air pollution, car exhaust and flying dust collecting on house body and horizontal trim

Solution:

Wash off all surface dirt before priming and painting. If unsure whether the problem is dirt or mildew, conduct a simple spot-test (see Mildew). Clean off dirt with a scrub brush and detergent solution, followed by a thorough rinsing with a garden hose. Heavier dirt accumulation may require the use of a power washer. While dirt pickup can’t be eliminated entirely, top quality exterior latex paints typically offer superior dirt pickup resistance and washability. Also, higher gloss paints are more resistant to dirt pickup than flat paints, which are more porous and can more easily entrap dirt.

Crusty, white salt deposits, leached from mortar or masonry as water passes through it

Possible Cause:

– Failure to adequately prepare surface by removing all previous efflorescence
– Excess moisture escaping through the exterior masonry walls from the inside

Solution:

If excess moisture is the cause, eliminate the source by repairing the roof, cleaning out gutters and downspouts, and sealing any cracks in the masonry with a high quality, water-based all-acrylic or siliconized acrylic caulk. If moist air is originating inside the building, consider installing vents or exhaust fans, especially in kitchen, bathroom and laundry areas. Remove the efflorescence and all other loose material with a wire brush or power washer; then thoroughly rinse the surface. Apply a top quality PARA PRIMETECH Acrylic Latex or Alkyd masonry sealer and allow it to dry completely; then apply a coat of top quality PARA ULTRA Acrylic Latex Exterior House Paint.

Premature and/or excessive lightening of the paint colour, which often occurs on surfaces with sunny southern exposure. Fading/poor colour retention can also be a result of chalking of the coating.

Possible Cause:

– Use of an interior grade of paint for an outdoor application.
– Use of a lower quality paint, leading to rapid degradation (chalking) of the paint film
– Use of a paint colour that is particularly vulnerable to UV radiation (most notably, certain bright reds, blues and yellows). Tinting a white paint not intended for tinting, or overtinting a light or medium paint base.

Solution:

When fading/poor colour retention is a result of chalking, it is necessary to remove as much of the chalk as possible (see chalking). In repainting, be sure to use top quality PARA ULTRA Exterior Paint. All PARA exterior colours are fade resistant.

A white, salt-like substance on the paint surface. Frosting can occur on any paint colour, but it is less noticeable on white paint or light tints. On masonry, it can be mistaken for efflorescence. Forms mostly in protected areas (such as under eaves and on open porch ceilings) that do not receive the cleansing action of rain, dew and other moisture.

Possible Cause:

– Use of dark coloured paints that have been formulated with calcium carbonate extender
– Application of a dark-coloured paint over a paint or primer containing calcium carbonate extender

Solution:

Frosting can be a stubborn problem. It often cannot be washed off readily. Moreover, the condition can recur even as a bleed-through when a new top coat is applied. In extreme cases, it can interfere with adhesion. The best remedy is to remove the frosting by wire-brushing masonry or sanding wood surfaces; rinse, then apply a PARA PRIMETECH Alkyd Primer before adding a coat of high quality PARA ULTRA Exterior Paint.

Appearance of a denser colour or higher gloss where wet and dry layers overlap during paint application

Possible Cause:

– Failure to maintain a “wet edge” when applying paint.

Solution:

Maintain a wet edge when painting by applying paint toward the unpainted area and then back into the just-painted surface. This technique (brushing from “wet to dry,” rather than vice versa) will help produce a smooth, uniform appearance. It is also wise to minimize the area being painted and plan for interruptions at a natural break, such as a window, door or corner (especially important when applying stain to bare wood). Alkyd paints generally have superior wet edge properties.

Black, grey or brown areas on the surface of paint or caulk. Forms most often on areas that tend to be damp, and receive little or no direct sunlight (walls with a northerly exposure and the underside of eaves are particularly vulnerable).

Possible Cause:

– Use of a lower quality paint, which may have an insufficient amount of mildewcide
– Failure to prime bare wood before painting
– Painting over a substrate or coating on which mildew has not been removed.

Solution:

Test for mildew by applying a few drops of household bleach to the discoloured area; if it disappears, it is probably mildew. Remove all mildew from the surface by scrubbing with a diluted household bleach solution (one part bleach, three parts water); wear rubber gloves and eye protection. Power washing is also an option. Rinse thoroughly, prime any bare wood, then apply one or two coats of a PARA ULTRA top quality Exterior Paint with mildewcide.

Reddish-brown stains on the paint surface.

Possible Cause:

– Non-galvanized iron nails have begun to rust, causing bleed-through to the top coat
– Non-galvanized iron nails have not been countersunk and filled over
– Galvanized nailheads have begun to rust after sanding or excessive weathering

Solution:

When painting new exterior construction where non-galvanized nails have been used, it is advisable to first countersink the nailhead, then caulk them with a top quality, water-based all-acrylic or siliconized acrylic caulk. Each nailhead area should be spot primed, then painted with a quality acrylic latex coating. When repainting exteriors where nailhead rusting has occurred, wash off rust stains, sand the nailheads, then follow the same surface preparation procedures for new construction.

Loss of adhesion where many old coats of alkyd or oil-based paint receive a latex top coat.

Possible Cause:

– Use of water-based latex paint over more than three or four coats of old alkyd or oil-based paint may cause the old paint to “lift off” the substrate

Solution:

Repaint using another coat of alkyd paint. Or completely remove the existing paint and prepare the surface – cleaning, sanding and spot-priming with a high quality PARA PRIMETECH primer where necessary, before repainting with a top quality PARA ULTRA Acrylic Latex Exterior Paint.

Loss of paint due to poor adhesion. Where there is a primer and top coat, or multiple coats of paint, peeling may involve some or all coats.

Possible Cause:

– Seepage of moisture through un-caulked joints, worn caulk or leaks in roof or walls
– Excess moisture escaping through the exterior walls (more likely if paint is alkyd)
– Inadequate surface preparation
– Use of lower quality paint
– Applying an alkyd paint over a wet surface
– Earlier blistering of paint (see Blistering)

Solution:

Try to identify and eliminate cause of moisture (See Efflorescence/Mottling). Prepare surface by removing all loose paint with scraper or wire brush, sand rough surfaces, and prime bare wood with a suitable PARA PRIMETECH primer. Repaint with a PARA ULTRA top quality Acrylic Latex Exterior Paint for best adhesion and water resistance.

Concentration of water-soluble ingredients of latex paint, creating a blotchy, sometimes glossy, appearance, often with a tan or brownish cast. More likely with tinted paints than with white or factory coloured paints.

Possible Cause:

– Painting in cool, humid conditions or just before they occur. The longer drying time allows the paints water-soluble ingredients, which would normally evaporate, to be leached out by rain or dew and rise to the surface before paint thoroughly dries
– Mist, dew or other moisture drying on the painted surface shortly after it has dried.

Solution:

Avoid painting in the late afternoon if cool, damp conditions are expected in the evening or overnight. If the problem occurs in the first day or so after the paint is applied, the water-soluble material can sometimes be rinsed off rather easily. Fortunately, even more stubborn cases will generally weather off in a month or so.

Brownish or tan discoloration on the surface due to migration of tannin from the substrate through the paint. Typically occurs on “staining woods” (e.g. redwood, cedar and mahogany) and knots in certain other wood species.

Possible Cause:

– Failure to adequately prime and seal the surface before applying the paint.
– Use of a primer that is not sufficiently stain-resistant
– Excess moisture escaping through the exterior walls, which can carry the stain to the paint surface.

Solution:

Correct any possible sources of excess moisture (see Efflorescence/Mottling). After thoroughly cleaning the surface, apply a PARA PRIMETECH high quality stain-resistant Alkyd or Acrylic Latex Primer. Alkyd stain-resistant primers are the best type to use on severely stained boards. In extreme cases, a second coat of primer can be applied after the first has dried thoroughly. Finish with PARA ULTRA top quality Acrylic Latex Paint.

Warping or buckling of vinyl siding panels that have been repainted.

Possible Cause:

– Most likely cause is that vinyl siding was repainted with a darker colour paint than the original colour. Dark paint tends to absorb the heat of the sun, transferring it to the substrate. When vinyl siding expands dramatically, it is not able to contract to its original dimensions.

Solution:

Paint vinyl siding in a shade no darker than the original. White, off-whites, pastels and other very light colours are good choices. PARA ULTRA top quality Acrylic Latex Paint is the best type of paint to use on vinyl siding, because the superior flexibility of the paint film enables it to withstand the stress of expansion and contraction cycles caused by outdoor temperature changes. Siding that has warped or buckled should be assessed by a siding or home repair contractor to determine the best remedy. The siding may have to be replaced.